Job analysis and job descriptions improve organisational management
A well-designed job analysis and job description system provides accurate and detailed information about jobs in a form that directly facilitates the design and management of numerous human resources systems.
While all personnel systems operate from a common core of job information, each system has unique information requirements. The type of data needed for designing a training program differs from the data needed to design staffing and succession.
The use of data and information from a job analysis system are used in other Human Resources Systems in the following way:
Once the complete scope and purpose of an organisation has been determined, all the different tasks that need to be performed to achieve that purpose, need to be defined and written up into different job descriptions ranging from elementary to the most complex of tasks at the highest level of the organisation. Jobs performing similar tasks or working with the same systems can then be combined into significant operating units such as departments or divisions.
Job analysis plays an important part in making possible the creation of the right number and type of posts and in defining the qualifications needed for each post. Job analysis is an essential element of effective manpower planning.
Recruitment and selection
The job analysis system establishes a set of clearly defined job requirements. It generates an accurate narrative description of the job content (job description) as well as detailed specification of the qualifications, experience, skills and abilities (competencies) required of an applicant / incumbent in order for him/her to perform the specific tasks in the job (job specification). This information assists the company and the applicant to assess him/herself against the job requirements.
Remuneration and benefits
The job evaluation system uses descriptive information supplied through a job description to compare jobs to one another by using common criteria, like decision-making levels. The job evaluation system provides a systematic basis (grading) for establishing relative worth of jobs in the company or in the national labour market, for ensuring internal equity between jobs in a company and assisting with performance management.
A company’s performance management system has to ensure that the system includes a linkage between job goals and functions and the strategic goals of the organisation. Information received from job descriptions can be adjusted to determine annual performance standards and job goals for each position.
For these standards to be effective, they must be related to the key results of each area. Each individual employee’s contribution to the reaching of individual, departmental and company goals, is measured through regular performance appraisals where his/her efforts towards reaching standards laid down in job descriptions and key results areas laid down in the Performance Guide (such as a Balanced Scorecard), are assessed.
A job analysis system facilitates the setting of job requirements for each job at each level of job in the Paterson Grading System. Each level in the Paterson Grading System has similar or common dimensions and when jobs at different levels and in different parts of an organisation are profiled against these dimensions, individual employees can easily see the differences between positions and how their competencies, skills, experience and technical knowledge match those in their own and other jobs.
Competencies / employees’ behaviour
Often during a performance appraisal, it may come to light that performance standards and key results areas were not met because the employee’s competence in key behavioral or knowledge areas, is inhibiting the achievement of goals. Such an appraisal will form the basis of a development plan to improve performance.
Training and development
Complete job information assists with the identifying of training and development programs that will improve the competence of the employee in the desired area in order to improve competence and performance and helps with career planning.
Succession / career path planning
Succession / career path planning and counselling are greatly facilitated when jobs at different levels and in different parts of the organisation are profiled by dimensions such as main job function and tasks, decision-making, job content and the skills, knowledge, technical expertise and ability needed for those jobs. Individual employees can embark on a self- development drive to achieve the level of competence necessary to for him to achieve his career aspirations.